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Rare Earth Magnets

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A Magnet is a that what attracts or repels the ferromagnetic materials. One of the good example of the Ferromagnetic material is iron. Commonly there are four types of permanent  magnet
  1. Ceramic
  2. Alnico
  3. Neodymium
  4. Samarium Cobalt

Magnet
Magnets

The Neodymium and Samarium Cobalt are strong rare earth magnets made of alloys of rare earth elements. They have a wide application as they can retain the magnetic field for a very long time.

What are Rare Earth Magnets?

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Basically there comes a question what is a rare earth magnet? How exactly it special from other magnets?
The rare earth magnets are the metals that are ferromagnetic in nature. They get magnetized permanently as their Curie temperature will be below room temperature so in pure form their magnetism appears at low temperature. They form compounds with the transition metals such as iron, nickel and cobalt. Some of these have a Curie temperature above room temperature. The special thing about them is that they have a great attractive power. Commonly used rare earth magnets are Neodymium and Samarium Cobalt.

Hence, the rare earth magnets are
  • Come under lathanoid series in periodic table
  • Strong permanent magnets
  • Have high Coercivity
  • Have high magnet anisotropy.

How are Rare Earth Magnets made?

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The Neodymium and Samarium Cobalt are well known rare earth magnets. The best thing about them is they are very strong and retain their magnetic field for a very long time and has so many applications.
Neodymium Magnet
Neodymium Magnet

Neodymium magnets are composed as an alloy of neodymium (Nd), iron (Fe) and boron (B)  that is (NdFeB) while samarium cobalt are made of samarium (Sm), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu) and Zirconium (Zr). Unlike Neodymium these can resist their property even for high temperature and hence have a higher Curie point (working temperature of Neodymium is 120o C and for Samarium Cobalt is 250o C).

Rare Earth Magnets Strength

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The strength of the magnetic field decides the maximum energy product. The strength of the magnet increase largely by discovering new magnetic materials like samarium, cobalt, Neodymium etc. Thus the rare earth magnets acted as the best source of magnets which have a magnetic field that has a range up to 24,000 Gauss (2.4 Tesla). There are both large rare earth magnets and small rare earth magnets showing their own magnetic strength.