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Spintronics known as spin transport electronics also known as magneto electronics, is an emerging technology in solid state physics that exploits both the magnetic moment associated and intrinsic spin of the electron and also its fundamental electronic charge.The spin of electrons points  either “up” or “down”. It corresponds to the 0s and 1s used in standard binary code. This technique transmits or store data on the unprecedented scale.

Spintronics Fundamentals and Applications

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Spintronics is a multidisciplinary field whose central theme is the active manipulation of the spin degree of freedom in solid state systems. The goal of spintronics is to understand the interaction between the particle spin and its solid state environments and to make useful devices using the acquired knowledge. Fundamental studies of spintronics include investigations of spin transport in electronic materials, as well as understanding spin dynamics and spin relaxation.

Organic Spintronics

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Organic spintronics is a hybrid of two hot fields: organic electronics and spintronics. The excitement in this field of spin transport in organics, mainly organic semiconductors, has evolved rapidly in the last five years. Combined with the novelty and the expectation of a large travel length in organic compounds for spins without being perturbed, the field is marching on. With the possibility of creating unique molecular systems from a bottom up approach, the field has opened up vast opportunities for discovering newer, fundamental phenomena. This is bound to lead toward technological breakthroughs.

Graphene Spintronics

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For years, spintronics has searched for a material whose properties can be tuned by electrostatic gates that can also transport electron spin at room temperature. This property was finally realized in graphene which is composed of a single atomic layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. A few layers of graphene are known as multilayer graphene, and many layers constitute the common material graphite. The gate-tunable, room temperature spin transport makes it an attractive material for spintronics applications.

Graphene is special for spintronics for a number of reasons:

  • Gate tunable spin transport at room temperatures.
  • Long spin diffusion lengths of ~4 microns at room temperature.
  • Unusual Dirac band structure (like mass less particles), which leads to predictions of unusual magnetic properties such as magnetized edges and half-metallic spin ordering in nanoribbons.
  • Possibility of long spin lifetimes due to weak intrinsic spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions.
  • Predictions of unusual gate-dependent magnetic and superconducting behavior in doped graphene.
  • Extreme surface sensitivity, which could be exploited for novel functionality including spin manipulation.
  • Designs for spin-based computing in graphene, which can surpass Si CMOS for data intensive applications.