In the early 1800's, scientists began examining the basis of matter, space, and time. Sometimes it gets very confusing, but the big idea is that Newton's physics describe about 90% of the way things work in the universe. Newton’s ideas start to break down when you talk about ideas such as objects moving at the speed of light, the inside of atoms, extreme temperatures, and when the objects are huge like galaxies interacting with each other.
“Modern” physics means physics based on the two major breakthroughs of the early the twentieth century: relativity and quantum mechanics. Modern physics is that what refers to Newtonian concept of physics where matter and energy are not separate. It is a huge conceptual branch that explains about the phenomena that relates to quantum mechanics and Einstein relativity and particle physics.
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Albert Einstein who came with the most important theory called Theory of Relativity with a famous equation E = mc2 is the Father of Modern Physics.He is the man who is the behind all the sophisticated advanced things we are using today like GPS, hand phones, digital cameras etc. Einstein changed the way we think about space, time and matter. His contribution to theoretical physics was significant enough to award him with Nobel Prize. So he is rightly justified as the Father of Modern Physics.
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Particle physics is the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the forces of nature. The word particle physics tells about tiny matter existing in universe and its interactions. The standard model is the basic of particle physics which suggests that universe is of fundamental particles namely six quarks and six leptons. These cannot be broken down further. Particle physics studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them.
These include atomic constituents such as electrons, protons, and neutrons (protons and neutrons are actually composite particles, made up of quarks), particles produced by radiate and scattering processes, such as photons, neutrinos, and muons, as well as a wide range of exotic particles. Even the nuclear theory can be explained using this. The fundamental particles are quarks and leptons. The protons and neutrons are of quarks constituents while the electrons are leptons constituents.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei. Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons. The protons and neutrons put together is a nucleus. A heavy nucleus can contain hundreds of nucleons wherein the nucleus has an energy which arises partly from surface tension and partly from electrical repulsion of the protons. Nuclear physics tells us how the nucleus structure is and how much stable it is. The energy released by the nucleus is what we call Nuclear energy. The nucleus can release energy in two ways - Fusion and Fission. Various models related to the nucleus and their development by various scientists, their experiments, theories etc. are part of Nuclear Physics.→ Read More