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Elementary Particles

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The topic or field of elementary particle arises after the invention of the electron. After that, new particle was discovered from cosmic rays. These particles are high energy particles. This field become popular after the invention of particles from cosmic rays. The discovery of quarks enhanced the growth of this field. More details about this topic is explained in the following section. 

Definition

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Elementary particles are defined as the fundamental particles or building block of every matter. Before it was considered as atoms are the basic building block of any matter. But now it is realized that atoms are also divided into further more elementary particles. Elementary particles leads to a new branch of physics which is known as Quantum mechanics. In quantum mechanics, the study of quantum particles and their interactions, properties etc.

Standard Model

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The standard model is nothing but the theory of fundamental particles and their interactions. In 1970s, these theories are termed as a standard model. Basically it tells about sixteen elementary particles. These sixteen particles are 6 quarks, 6 leptons and 4 force carriers. The given figure depicts the standard model of elementary particles.

Standard Model of Particle Physics

Six quarks include up, down, strange, charm, top and bottom.
Six leptons are electron, electron neutrino, muon, muon neutrino, tau and tau neutrino. And force carriers are photon, gluon, z boson and w boson.

List of Elementary Particles

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The list of existing fundamental elementary particles are given below. In this table different elementary particles and their anti particle are noted.

Quarks and Antiquarks
Quarks
Symbol
Antiquarks
up u $\bar{u}$
down d $\bar{d}$
strange s $\bar{s}$
charm c $\bar{c}$
top t $\bar{t}$
bottom b $\bar{b}$

Leptons and Anti leptons
Leptons
Symbol Anti leptons
electron e- e+
electron neutrino $\nu _{e}$ $\bar{\nu _{e}}$
muon $\mu$ - $\mu$ +
muon neutrino $\nu _{\mu}$ $\bar{\nu _{\mu}}$
tau $\tau$ - $\tau$ +
tau neutrino $\nu _{\tau}$ $\bar{\nu _{\tau}}$

Bosons
Bosons Symbol
Anti bosons
gluon g _
photon γ _
w boson w- w+
z boson z _