First we do not know how to isolate quarks, so to do experiments on quarks we must use the quarks in hadrons. Second, hadrons are a fascinating form of matter and it is interesting to study them in their own right. The strong force, which holds the quarks together in the hadron, is carried by gluon particles.
It is useful to think of the gluons as traveling between the quarks, being emitted by one quark and absorbed by another quark. Thus, the hadron may be thought of as being composed of gluons as well as quarks. Indeed in a moving hadron the gluons carry part of the energy. However, it is the quarks that determine the mass and other properties of the hadron.
Hadron DefinitionBack to Top
Hadrons are sub nuclear particles, but they are not elementary particles. To the best of our knowledge, hadrons are made of either three quarks or one quark and one antiquark bound together by the strong force. The first hadrons to be discovered were the proton and neutron. Now more than a hundred types of hadrons are known. Although hadrons are not in themselves elementary particles, they are nevertheless important in elementary particle physics research.
BaryonsBack to Top
Baryons comes under the category of hadrons. It's a subatomic particle and made up of three quarks. According to the types of quarks, the behaviour and properties of baryons varies. Simply we can say that, baryon is not an elementary particle but it is composite in nature. The interactions among the baryons are very strong. It is quark dependent particle where the leptons and other particle are not. Protons and neutrons are the examples of baryons. These are made up of three quarks.
MesonsBack to Top
Meson is a kind of hadronic particle which is composed of one quark and one antiquark. Since it made up of quarks the interaction between them is weak as well as strong. These quarks and antiquark are bounded by strong nuclear force. The size of the meson is 2/3 time greater than that of proton. Mesons are unstable and the decay of charged meson produces an electron and neutrino whereas photons are produced during uncharged meson decay.
Hadron ColliderBack to Top
Hadron Collider is a device to create the conditions similar to the Big Bang. Charged quark particle taking part of this collision and to form hadrons and anti hadrons. Hadron Collider is nothing but the hadron accelerator in which the quark particles are accelerated. The main Hadron Colliders or accelerators are Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Super Hadron Collider. Super hadron collider is a progressive collider than the LHC. In this collider, we can see particle more clear than LHC because it provides more luminous power.
Hadron AcceleratorBack to Top
The fundamental scientific purpose of the LHC is to explore the inner structure of matter and the forces that govern its behaviour and thereby understand better the present content of the universe and its evolution since the Big Bang and possibility into the future. The unparallelled high energy of the LHC, which is designed to be 7 TeV per proton in each colliding beam and its enormous collision rate, which is planned to attain about a billion collisions per second, will enable the LHC to examine rare processes occurring at very small distances inside matter. It will be a microscope able to explore the inner structure of matter on scales an order of magnitude smaller than any previous collider. The energies involved in these proton-proton collisions will be similar to those in particle collisions in the first trillionth of a second of the history of the universe.